July 2, 2019
By: PathSOS Team

How Technology Can Detect Cancer In Early Stage

Diagnosing Cancer at its earliest stages usually provides the most effective probability for a cure.  The days - or even weeks - spent waiting for the results of a cancer-screening test can feel like perpetuity. Especially when the early diagnosis and treatment are tied to better outcomes. Now, a new technique to analyze proteins implemented on cancer cells shows promise in rapidly detecting these cell types. Following are some technologies which can be used to detect cancer in an early stage:

1. Nano pore blockade sensor: This sensor can detect biomarkers and single molecules at much lower levels than current blood tests will, and you can get results in several minutes. Cancer biomarkers or tumor markers are substances, usually proteins that are produced by the body in response to cancer growth. The Nanopore blockade sensors work by using magnetic particles to capture biomarkers and bring them to one of many small pores drilled through a silicon membrane. If a magnetic nanoparticle has captured the biomarker, it will block the pore. By counting which pores are blocked the biomarkers can be counted, one molecule at a time. Importantly, this device can be used on the whole blood samples in routine taken at pathology labs.

 

2. Electric Field-Induced Release and Measurement (EFIRM) can detect EGFR mutations directly from body fluids of lung cancer patients. It can detect 2 epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations associated with lung cancer in the blood of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with early-stage disease. NSCLC is usually injurious because most cases are not diagnosed until they are so advanced that surgical intervention is no longer possible. This new technology tests blood or saliva of early-stage lung cancer patients to identify 2 cancer-linked mutations published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

 

3. Oncology Imaging and Diagnosis: Imaging forms a necessary part of cancer clinical protocols and is able to furnish morphological, structural, metabolic and functional information. It is used to screen and diagnose cancer, guide cancer treatments, determine the effectiveness of cancer therapy and monitor cancer recurrence. Integration of oncology medical imaging with other clinical tools, such as in vitro tissue analysis, biomarker tests, and cancer screening, improves decision making. Early detection through screening based on imaging is the major contributor to a reduction in the number of deaths caused by certain types of cancers.

 

4. 3-D-nanopatterned microfluidic chip: The device, which is called a "3-D-nanopatterned microfluidic chip," could successfully detect cancer markers in the tiniest drop of blood or in a component of the blood called plasma. The scientists used the device for the detection, in 2 μL plasma samples from 20 ovarian cancer patients and 10 age-matched controls, of exosomes subpopulations expressing CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and folate receptor alpha proteins.

 

5. Breathalyzer: Scientists have developed a breathalyzer to diagnose 17 diseases including cancer with one breath from a patient. The breathalyzer has an array of specially created gold nanoparticles, which are sized at billionths of a meter, and mixed with similar-sized tubes of carbon. These together create a network that is able to interact differently with each of the nearly 100 volatile compounds that each person breaths out (apart from gases like nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide).